Catalog of the Scientific Community
Explanation of the Categories
Birth and Death Years | Father's Status/Career | Nationalities | Education | Religion
Scientific Disciplines | Means of Support | Patronage | Technological Involvement | Scientific Societies
Note: the creators of the Galileo Project and this catalogue cannot answer email on geneological questions.
©1995 Al Van Helden
Under this heading I seek the source of patronage, which of course I want to categorize. Patronage as a source of support is listed under the previous heading. I am considering patronage under a broad definition, and I want to be sure to get down any suggestion of patronage in a scientist's career. I am convinced that no university appointment in the 16th or 17th century was made without patronage, that is, without the influence of some powerful man. Equally philosophers and scientists sought the moral support of the powerful; I think of numerous incidents in the life of Descartes, where neither money nor position was in question. If you find any such incidents, list them. The knighting of a man, an act that conferred status and advantage, I consider as an act of patronage. Medical practice in the household of some ruler or wealthy man I consider above (that is, under means of support) as patronage, and here I want the category of the patron. As with all attempts to categorize, there are areas of ambiguity, where patronage becomes difficult to distinguish from friendship and from family loyalty. Under this heading, obviously, I distinguish the source of the patronage, but not the magnitude of the favor. The act of knighting seems to me about the smallest favor that I want to include. I have twelve categories for the source of patronage [now thirteen], which include Academics, Scientists, and (where an act of patronage is evident but not the source of it) Unknown. Merchant (which does not appear to be in heavy use here) is a catch-all term under which, for example, manufacturers or bankers could appear.
9. Technological involvement.
What I want here is not Baconian talk about useful knowledge, though I want you to make a note of such, but involvement in actual projects of utility. List any project or enterprise in which a scientist engaged in which the application of science to utility was envisaged.10. Scientific societies.
- The planning or making of scientific instruments is clearly a technological enterprise in my definition.
- Categories of technology: agriculture, applied mathematics, architecture, cartography, chemistry, civil engineering, hydraulic engineering, instruments, mechanical devices, medical practice, metallurgy, military engineering, navigation, pharmacology. And, of course, none.