These Scripts were used in our in-class presentation

Much of the actual dialog here was taken as verbatim as possible from "The Galileo Affair" (See bibliography).

Scene I

Niccolini (Darin) iss seated facing the audience. On his desk is the liquor, ink well, a reading lamp, and his papers. He is writing and reading aloud. He will read from the Coorespondence from April 16, 1633. At a set point he will be interupted by the entrance of the Venetian ambasador to Rome - Frangelico Galiano.

(Enters F.G.) F.G. -> "Salutations my esteemed friend Niccolini. I have just returned from Venice where my duties have kept me from affairs in Rome for the past several months. I have only recently heard this is to be a trail for the astrnomer Galileo. But, I have nothing of what this trial could be for."

Nic. -> "Well my dear collegue and distinguished ambassador from Venice, you have indeed missed a great deal of news. There has been much contreversy regarding the printing of Galileo's Dialogues on the Two World Systems."

F.G. -> "Ahh. I had heard of his attempts to gain permissions for it's publishing, but I was unaware it had indeed been published. Nor did I here of any insuing uproar."

Nic. -> "There has been a reaction to his work by many pious citizens as well as from the highest ranks of the Holy Catholic Church. You honestly heard nothing of these events?"

F.G. -> "No, as I said my absence has deprived me of such information. Could you presently relate to me the events which have transpired to brings things to the trial which I have heard is to take place here in Rome?"

Nic. -> "I would gladly do so. Here, have a seat. (F.G. sits down at the table) Well, I think it best that I return to the events which occurred ion the wake of the printing of this work. It was then that i spoke with his emenence, Lord Cardinal Barberini on the issue of the censure and revision which had been performed on the Dialogues. In addition, I brought up with the Cardinal my concerns regarding the committee most recently set up to review the affair surrounding the printing of the book. I was concerned about the partiality of this committee. As a recall that meeting was on the 22nd of August 1632."

(Light fades out) (We turn on the first video)

Scene I/Barberini's Palace

Barberini: "Welcome Honorable Ambassador Niccolini. What brings you here to see me on this fine day?"

Niccolini: "I come your Eminance, to speak about the Commission being set up to review Galileo's new book, The Dialogue. The book has been printed with the required license, ben reviewed in Florence and has had the beginning and the ending revised as the authorities wanted. Unfortunately on the Commission are people prejudiced against Galileo. I'm petitioning on behalf of the Tuscany State for neutral people to be appointed. I'm afraild that the present Commission would not be impartial. "

Barberini: "Oh, I do not think there is any reason to question the choice of Commission members. As you know, His Holiness the Pope has high affections and extreme regard for Galileo. The book will of course reviewed fairly. However, to ease your mind I will make your requests known to the Pope. I'm sure that you have no reason to worry."

Niccolini: " I thank you for your considerations. I hope that the Dialogue will pass the Commission. It is truly a worthy book. I know that Galileo has spent many years writing. Your Eminance, could you tell me exactly why this Commission has been set up? Mr. Galilei received all the appropriate licenses, etc. There seems to be no reason for another review of his book. "

Barberini: " Oh, I would not worry. With all this business of changing the printing location and all of the miscommunication involved, by setting up a Commission, we can resolve any objections people might have once and for all and put this matter behind us."

Niccolini: "Well then, if you think this is a mere formality, I will tell Mr. Galilei not to worry. I'm sure everything will work out in the end. Thank you Your Eminance for your time."

(After video, Light up)

Nic. -> "So at the time it appeared to me that despite the rather suspicious committee which had convened to look into the printing of the Dialogue, a conflict could seemingly be averted. After all, I had heard from friends in the vatican that they were not thinking of prohibiting Mr. Galileo's work, but rather of amending a few passages."

F.G. -> "So then my friend, what went wrong? For it is obvious that this matter did not simply blow over."

Nic. -> "Well, for my part I made every attempt to keep these events from boiling over. I continued to meet with Lord Cardinal Barberini as well as the Master of the Sacred Palace to make it clear that all proper license and permission had been obtained by Mr. Galileo. Yet it became clear to me that the wind was turning in an unfavaorable direction. It seems that the His Holiness, the Pope, was quickly becoming more and more angered by his friend Galileo's behavior in this affair. Though this did not become completely clear to me until my meeting with His Holiness on the 4th of September."

(Light fades out) (Video on)

Scene between the Pope and Niccolini:

Enter Niccolini into the Pope's Chamber


N: Your Holiness, I have come here to speak with you about the book that Galileo has written. It seems that difficulties have arisen that concerned his book. I do not understand why you are so upset with . . .

P (in extreme RAGE): How dare you comne in here judging my feelings towards Galileo!!! That man has caused me nothing but trouble over this book. Galileo has dared to enter wher he should not have. This is a most serious and dangerous matter that he has written about. At this time such a book as Galileo has written must surely be condemned. He must not be allowed to speak such garbage, such nonsense about the holy teachings of the Church.

N: But your Holiness, the ministers of the Church approved the publication of the book. I myself even sent copies of the book as it was being printed here to Rome. Galileo has followed your orders from the beginning. He did not go behind any one's back to publish this book. Why is there such a fuss when everyone who looked at the book approved it.

P: (still in Rage): I have been deceived!! Galileo has gone about this backwards. He has played one minister off of another. No one who tried to correct the book has been listened too. The people in Romethat approved the book do not have the authority to have approved in Florence. Besides the imprimatur that was obtained here in Rome was conditional. The corrections that were to be made never were. And furthermore that idiot Ciampoli dared to enter my chamber and look me in the eye and tell me that Mr. Galilei was ready to do all that I ordered before the book was to be printed. He had not even looked at the book. He did not even know what he was talking about. Then of course we have the Master of the Sacred Palace. Here is another man who was deceived by Galileo. The Master had signed his endorsement and had it pulled out of his hands with beautiful words, then the book was printed in Florence on the basis of other endorsements but without complying with the form given to the Inquisitor. The Master of the Sacred Palace then had his name printed in the book`s list of imprimaturs even though he has no jursidiction over publications in other cities.

N: I understand that you have appointed a Commission to look into Galileo's book. I humbly beg you nto let Galileo come before you and judtify whatever actions you question him on. There are members on the Commission who strongly dislike Galileo and would like nothing better than to see him in serious trouble.

P: The procedure of the Holy Office is simple in these matters. There will be no time for the defendant to come before the Commission and talk with them. They will arrive at a censure after looking over the evidence and then they shall recall the denfendant to recant.

N: Does it thus not seem to your Holiness that Galileo should know in advance the difficulties and theobjections or the censures which are being raised against his work, and what the Holy Office is worried about?

P: (VIOLENTLY) I say to Your Lordship that the Holy Office does not do these things and does not proceed this way, that these things are never given in advance to anyone, that such is not the custom.Besides he knows very well wher the difficulties lie, if he wnats to know them since we have discussed this with him and he has heard them from ourselves.

N: Please, I beg of you to consider that the book was explicitly dedicated to you, our Most Serene Patron and that the Commission is dealing with one of your present employees. I hope that you will be helpful and also order your ministers to take it into consideration.

P: I expressly prohibited works which have my pontifical name on the front and that are dedicated to me. In such matters involving great harm to religion, indeed the worst ever conceived His Highness too should contribute to preventing it, being a Christian prince. Furthermore, because of this, you should clearly write to the Most Serene Highness to be careful not to get involved, as he has in the case of Alidosi, because he will not come out of it honorably.

N: I am sure that I will soon receive word to come here and bother you again, and I will do it, howeverI do not beleive that you your Holiness will bring about the Prohibition of the already approved book without at least hearing Galileo first.

P: This is the least ill which could be done to Galileo. He should take care not to be summoned by the Holy Office. I have appointed a Commission of theologians and other persons of versed in various sciences, serious and of Holy mind, who are weighing every minutia, word for word, since one is dealing with the most perverse subject one could ever come across. Again, my complaint is having been deceived by Galileo and Ciampoli. I suggest that you write to our Most Serene Patron and tell him that the doctrine is extremely perverse. We will reveiw everything with seriousness, and His Highness should not get involved but should go slow. I impose on you the secret about what we have just discussed, and I charge you to report that I am also imposing it on His Highness. I have used every civility with Mr. Galilei since I have explained to him what I know. I have not sent the case to the Holy Inquisition as is the norm, but rather to a special Inquisition as is the norm, but rather to a special commission newly created, which is something. Further, I have usewd much better manners with Mr. Galilei than he has used with me who has ben deceived. That is all for now. Please leave.

(Fade back in)

F.G. -> "Goodness, I was unaware His Holiness was capable of demonstrating such anger. It would seem his close affections for Galileo in the past indeed have soureed over this affair. So after the confrontation, how did this matter proceed?"

Nic. -> "Now the question of a trial was settled and the Vatican called to have Galileo brought to Rome so that he could be inteerviewed personally. A prospect which disturbed me greatly considering Galileo's ill health and the quarantine which was being enforced in and around Rome. The journey would be long and difficult. My hope was that the preceedings might be undertaken in Florence for Galileo's convenience."

F.G. -> "Did you gain any sympathies from the Pope on this matter? After all, he must have retained some personal feelings for his old friend." Nic. -> "I undertook to explain to his Holiness the issues of his infirmity at great length, to move him to pity poor Mr. Galileo, who is now old and whom I love and adore. The Pope was moved by this fact and allowed that he could come slowly with great comfort in a litter, but stated it was necessary to examine him personally."

F.G. -> "So when was Galileo officially called to Rome?" Nic. -> "It was first on the 14th of November that an official message was sent, but Galileo's journey to Rome did not begin until nearly two months later."

F.G. -> "Why the delay?"

Nic. -> "I continued to pursue permission to secure a delay and increase the sympathy for Mr. Galileo. While at the same time I tried to make it clear to Galileo that the sooner he begin his trip, the better light he would be viewed in by those at the Vatican. I even let him know that I would willingly allow him to stay in my home in Rome upon arriving. It was finally on the 15th of January in this year that a messanger was sent to the home of Galileo to express in no uncertain terms that he must begin his journey to Rome."

(Fade out and go to video)

F.G. -> "Well indeed, it would appear that Mr. Galileo was in no condition to travel. But from all that is happening, it is obvious he has arrived in Rome."

Nic -> "Yes, and he is still in a state of confusion concerning these proceedings. He still feels that he did not break the rules set out by the church, or go against the restrictions from 1616."

F.G. -> "Has he begun to understand the intentions of the church in this matter now that he is here in Rome?"

Nic -> "I don't believe he is in an acceptable state to completely recognize the intention of the Vatican. The inquisition has been working quite vigorously to put together the information necessary to bring this affair to trial. To this end they most recently sent a priest by the name of Serrisitori to Galileo's chambers here in Rome to draw information from the old man."

fade to TV

Scene between Serristori and Galileo

Serr comes to see Galileo at the house where Galileo is staying(Niccolini's?)

S: Greetings Mr. Galilei. I have come to visit you now that you are here in Rome. As you may know I am a consultant with the Tribunal that is looking into your case.

G: Yes, about that case. I have absolutley no idea why they are conducting an investigation into my book. I know that I have followed eveything that I was instructed to do.

S: Yes, well there is no reason to discuss this right now. Actually, I have come by here merely to visit with you. So how have you been?

G: Oh just fine thenk you and yourself?

S: Fine.

G: So what have you been up to lately?

S: Oh nothing much. Just working on your case.

G: Yes, how is that going? No one is telling me anything and I am beginning to get rather worried.

S: Well, right now they have not really done all that much. They are just examining the evidence right now. How do you feel about the trial? Do you think that you may have gone against the Church's injunstion of 1616?

G: No, of course not. I have done everything that they told me to do. I have gone through all the right channels to have the book published. Yet, now the Pope seems very upset by the book. He seems to think that it should be banned I suppose that is why there is this Commission.

S: Well I would not worry too much. It does not seem that anything too serious is going to happen even if they do come down against the book. Perhaps you will have to change the preface or the ending. Would you be opposed to doing so?

G: Well I would want to see what changes they may have in mind for me to make. But honestly,I am an old man and I really just want this whole issue to be over and for the Pope to let me return home.

S: Well that may happen sooner than you think. I will keep my eyes out for any information that I can give you. Perhaps this will be over soon. I would not worry about it too much. You are a friend of the Pope's and I am sure this will end soon.

G: Your words are very encouraging. I shall follow your advice and not worry about this. I shall just enjoy my time here in Rome. Thank you for your visit.

fade lights in

F.G. -> "My sympathies go out to Mr. Galileo, for it appears that great hardship has befallen him in his old age. A trial does seem inevitable, and the verdict equally as certain. Simply the considering the forces arrayed against Galileo spells out his doom, since the inquisition rarely purues a matter to this extent without a degree of certainty as to the guilt. Have the actual preceedings begun?"

Nic -> "In fact the trial begins tomorrow. But official depositions have already begun. On the 12th Galileo was interviewed at the Holy Office concerning the basic aspects of the publishing and content of the Dialogue."

F.G. -> "Well, I'm glad I came to you Niccolini, else I would have been unaware of these events. After all, these types of proceedings are closed to all but a select few. There is little to no word of this matter in Venice, or anywhere else I have travelled in the Penninsula. Thank you for your summary, but I'm afraid I must be on my way."

Nic -> "I'm sorry you must leave, but it is always good to talk to an old friend. Now you will be among the few who are relatively informed on this matter, and I do hope you will make a prayer for Galileo, as I most certainly will do."

F.G. -> "Of that you can be sure. Farwell!"

Nic -> "Farwell!"

Scene III/Galileo's House

Knock on door, enter messenger

Messenger: " Mr. Galilei, I bring word from Lord Bali Cioli. He bids me to tell you that you must leave for Rome immediately."

Galileo: "Leave for Rome. Whatever on earth for? I am 75 years old, I'm in poor health, there is a quarantine going on. Why should I have to risk my life and travel to Rome? Can't they send someone out to see me?"

Messenger: " Sir, all that I have been told is that you are needed in Rome to clear up a matter concerning The Dialogue. Lord Cioli has given me no other word except that it is imperitive that you leave immediately. A litter has been arranged to take you to Rome, the travel will be slow. Ambassador Niccolini is expecting you. The Pope insists that you make the trip to Rome. There is no alternative."

Messenger leaves

Galileo: " Oh God, what is happening? Why am I being called to Rome? I did everything that I was supposed to do concerning this book. I do not understand. Why won't anyone tell me what is happening? Niccolini tells me nothing--just that I should not worry. Not worry? Men who are called to the Inquisition do not face pleasant futures. I thought that the Pope understood me and my book. I thought he was my friend. Oh well, I guess there is nothing more to do until I arrive in Rome. Maybe then I can get some answers."

Finally, we performed a mock-trial of Galileo

People: Inchofer: Scott Prosecutor: Stephani Judge: Janette Pasqualigo: Darin Galileo: David

Scene: a court room or as close as we can get. The Judge sitting behind the desk with a name tag and a tag for "KEN FAIR" and "GADOT" or something like that. If we could get a podium we could have the prosecutor stand behind it.

PR: The HOly Roman Inquisition will prove that in the work "Dialogue on the 2 chief World systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican" Galileo Galilei holds, defends, and teaches the opinion that the earth moves and the sun stands still. Furthemore he is heretical in his compernican beliefs. Not only has he contradicted and ridicules the wisdom of the Church but he has also violated the injunctiongiven to him by the late most holy father Cardinal Bellarmine.

J: Has the accused been urged to confess and repent for his sins on the fear of the wrath of God?

PR: Yes on the 12th of April Galileo was summoned to Rome at the palace of the HOly Office where he refused to abjure.

(Good place to flash to the sceen of the first deposition>

J: Do you have any witnessess to testify against Galileo?

PR: Yes, the prosecution would like to call Melchior Inchofer.

J: Please Proceed

(Melchior enters)

J: Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth so help you god?


J: you may be seated.

PR: Please state you name and position for the record

M: I am Melchior Inchoger, a Jesuit prophessor at the University of Messina and I was asked to join a special commission that reproted on the Dialogue in september of 1632 and a consultant to the inquisition.

PR: Please state you findings from your investigation.

M: (reads his statement P262-263)

PR: Do you have any specific reasons why it appears that Galileo teaches the opionion that the earth moves?

M: (read statement on P264-)

PR: Do you have any specific reasons why it appears that Galileo defends the opionion that the earth moves?

M: (read statement on P266)

PR: What evidence do you have that Galileo BELIEVES that the earth moves?

M: (read statement on P268)

PR: Thank you very much . we have no further questions.

J: YOU may step down. Do you have any other witnesses?

PR: yes, I would like to call Zaccaria Pasqualigo.

J: please proceed

(Darin enters)

J: Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God?

Z: I do

J: you may be seated

PR: Would you please state your name and position for the record?

Z: I am Zaccaria Pasqualigo, Clerk Regular and Professor of Scared Theology.

PR: So you are considered and expert on the Bible?

Z: YEs, in fact because of that the MOst Reverand Cardinal Genetti, vicar of his Holiness pope Urban VIII even asked me whether Galileo Galilei transgressed the injunction set to him by the Holy Office in 1616.

PR: and what did you find?

Z: I am of the opionion that he transgressed it as it regards the words "teach or defend" since indeed he tries as best he can to support the earth's motion and the sun's immobility, and also that he is strongly suspected of holding such an opionion as true.

PR: What evidence do you have for you position?

Z: (read pg272)

Pr: Thank you we have no further questions.

J: do you have any futher witnesses?

PR: No, at this time we would like to review Galileo's statements given in the hall of congregations in the palace of the HOLy office in rome. On the 30th of April, Galileo was called in for questioning. Galileo was asked to state whatever he wished to say under an oath to tell the truth. GALILEO RESPONDED: (READ DEPOSITION #2) So you see Galileo admits that in his vain ambition he has erred strongl but he regardlessly protests his innoncence. Galieo was summoned again on the 10th of May to the presence of the very Reverand father Fra Vincenza Maculano. O.P, Commissary general of the Holy office. That same father commissary gave him a deadline of 8 days to present his defense at this time Galileo did submethis defense together with a certificate by the late most Eminent Lord Cardinal Bellarmine. We world like to submit, for the record Galileo's defense and the certificate.

(PR hands a 2 papers to the judge)

J: I will read this evidence into the record

(judge preades Gal. defense and certificate)

please proceed.

PR: We would also like to submit at this time a composition by Galileo written to Father Beneditto Castelli. This letter contains the followin propositions: That in the holy scripture there are many propositions which are false as regards the literal sence of the word and that in natural disputes it should be saved as the last place of reference. (can go in more detail on P282) The nest piece of evidence we would like to submit is Galeleo's Book on sunspots which propses that the sun is the center and that the earth moves. This has already been qualifies as philosophically absurd. That the sun is the center is formally heretical and that the earth moves is a least erroneous in faith. Consequently on 25th of Febuary 1616, his holiness ordered the Lord Cardinal Bellarime to summon Galeleo and give him the injunction that he must abandon and not discuss in any way the previously mentioned opionion of the immobility of the sun and motion of the earth. This injunction Galileo promissed to obey stated that "he should abandon completely and not hold, teach, or defend it in any way ahatever; otherwise the Holy office would start proceedings against him .WHICH HAS HAPPENED. When the Father Master of the Sacred Palace examened Galileo's Dialogue. he found that Galileo had transgressed the orders and injunction given him by deveating from a hypothetical discussion. On the 21st of June Galileo was called in and asked if he holds or has held that the sun is the center of the world and the earth is not the center of the world but moves also with diurnal motion. GALILEO RESPONDED: (READ DEPOSITION #4) the prosecution rests its case.

J: ( read sentence or some abreviated version P.287-291)